Contributors: Autumn P Davidson, Prof Gary England
Species: Canine | Classification: Diseases
Introduction Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Outcomes Further Reading
- Typically, a dog or cat with penile entrapment will demonstrate acute discomfort during the period of anticipated detumescence, associated with failure of the engorged penis to return inside the prepuce.
- Penile mucosal exposure can lead to drying, excoriation and ischemia if the condition is not resolved.
- Any age intact breeding male dog or cat.
- Increased incidence in long haired breeds.
- Physical entrapment of the tip of the penis secondary to interference with detumescence by hair at the preputial orifice and inward rolling of the preputial skin.
- Longer hair coat predisposes individual to inward rolling of the prepuce during detumescence and entrapment of the distal tip of the penis in a hair and skin fold.
- These dogs and cats may have a history of distress following breeding or masturbation. Compulsive grooming efforts may resolve the problem in some cases.
- Diagnosis is made by visual examination of the prepuce and penis.
- Paraphimosis due to neurological dysfunction. May be idiopathic.
- Continued sexual stimulation.
- Severe balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis.
- Fracture of the os penis (in the dog).
- Swelling of the penis due to mass lesions:
- Neoplasia (Transmissible venereal tumor Skin: transmissible venereal tumor , papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma Penis: squamous cell carcinoma , fibroma, fibrosarcoma Fibrosarcoma , lymphosarcoma Lymphoma ).
- Foreign body.
Initial Symptomatic Treatment
- Application of water soluble lubricants and gentle retraction and massage of the prepuce may allow return of the penis within the preputial oriface. Surgical therapy (penile amputation Amputation: penis , myorrhaphy) is unlikely to be necessary unless the condition is not diagnosed before severe ischemic necrosis occurs.
- Grooming to remove excessively long hair from the distal prepuce, application of water soluble lubricants after breeding, and monitoring detumescence closely to avoid engorgement of the distal penis resulting from and exacerbating paraphimosis.
- Good if caught immediately.
Expected Response to Treatment
Reasons for Treatment Failure
- Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
Other sources of information
- Disorders of the Canine Penis and Prepuce(2001) In:Canine and Feline Theriogenology. Eds S D Johnston, M V Root Kustrit and P N Olson. pp 358.