Contributors: Autumn P Davidson, Prof Gary England

 Species: Canine   |   Classification: Diseases

Introduction Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Outcomes Further Reading


  • Urgent condition, lack of resolution can result in permanent damage to penis.
  • Male dogs and cats can experience entrapment of the penis outside of the prepuce during detumescence, a form of paraphimosis Penis: paraphimosis.

Presenting Signs

  • Typically, a dog or cat with penile entrapment will demonstrate acute discomfort during the period of anticipated detumescence, associated with failure of the engorged penis to return inside the prepuce.

Age Predisposition

  • Penile mucosal exposure can lead to drying, excoriation and ischemia if the condition is not resolved.
  • Any age intact breeding male dog or cat.

Breed Predisposition

  • Increased incidence in long haired breeds.



  • Physical entrapment of the tip of the penis secondary to interference with detumescence by hair at the preputial orifice and inward rolling of the preputial skin.

Predisposing Factors

  • Longer hair coat predisposes individual to inward rolling of the prepuce during detumescence and entrapment of the distal tip of the penis in a hair and skin fold.


Client History

  • These dogs and cats may have a history of distress following breeding or masturbation. Compulsive grooming efforts may resolve the problem in some cases.

Diagnostic Investigation

  • Diagnosis is made by visual examination of the prepuce and penis.

Differential Diagnosis


Initial Symptomatic Treatment

  • Application of water soluble lubricants and gentle retraction and massage of the prepuce may allow return of the penis within the preputial oriface. Surgical therapy (penile amputation Amputation: penis , myorrhaphy) is unlikely to be necessary unless the condition is not diagnosed before severe ischemic necrosis occurs.

Subsequent Management


  • Grooming to remove excessively long hair from the distal prepuce, application of water soluble lubricants after breeding, and monitoring detumescence closely to avoid engorgement of the distal penis resulting from and exacerbating paraphimosis.



  • Good if caught immediately.

Expected Response to Treatment

Reasons for Treatment Failure

Further Reading


Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Disorders of the Canine Penis and Prepuce(2001) In:Canine and Feline Theriogenology. Eds S D Johnston, M V Root Kustrit and P N Olson. pp 358.

Other Sources of Information