Contributors: Michael Paul, Michael Day, Richard B Ford

 Species: Canine   |   Classification: Miscellaneous

Introduction

  • Vaccination is an essential part of a healthcare program for domestic pets. The ideal strategy maximizes beneficial effects of vaccination while minimizing risks. This means ensuring each individual animal receives only the most appropriate vaccines, and that these vaccines are effective.
  • The immunogenicity of vaccines can be compromised by poor storage or inappropriate administration. In order to maintain efficacy vaccines must be stored in appropriate conditions:
    • 2-8°C.
    • Do not freeze.
    • Protect from light.
    • Avoid prolonged or repetitive exposure to high ambient temperatures.
  • The potency of many vaccines can be reduced by exposure to high temperatures for just a few hours.
    All vaccines should be stored in the refrigerator until used.
  • Once reconstituted (converted from dry to liquid form), vaccines should be used within 1 hour or should be discarded.
  • The technique of vaccination is also important, eg the skin should not be cleaned with disinfectants or spirit before injection. 
    Contact with disinfectant agents can render the vaccine inefficacious.
  • Correct route of vaccine administration is also important. Most vaccines are designed for subcutaneous administration and are ineffective if given by other routes.
  • Only administer vaccine by the route(s) recommended by the manufacturer. Some agents given by the incorrect route may cause clinical disease, eg intranasal Bordetella bronchipseptica vaccine administered subcutaneously may lead to serious local inflammation.
  • Several types of vaccines are available for protecting dogs against various bacteria and viruses that cause infectious respiratory disease. Intranasal vaccines are available that provide rapid onset of immunity against both bacteria (Bordetella bronchiseptica) and viruses, such as canine parainfluenza virus and canine adenovirus-2. Whether such a vaccine is used, and the specific product used, should be determined by the risk of exposure for the individiual pet. An oral vaccine against Bordetella bronchiseptica is available in the USA.
  • The immune competence of the individual receiving vaccination is important in ensuring efficacy. This can be affected by poor health/nutrition, concurrent drug therapy (eg immunosuppressive agents) and stress.
  • For all vaccinations there are a number of important considerations to maximize vaccine efficacy while reducing the risk of adverse effects:
    • Vaccinate healthy animals only, ie not those with fever.
    • Avoid vaccinating pregnant animals (unless the produce is specifically tested in pregnant animals and licensed for such use).
  • In any population of animals, even with the strictest attention to correct administration, a small number of individuals may fail to respond to any vaccine. This is often genetically determined and such individuals are characterized as either 'low responders' or 'non-responders' to that particular antigenic component.

Protocol factors

Before vaccination consider:

  • The vaccine itself, ie which vaccines are indicated at which stage of life.
  • The environment for which vaccination is most appropriate, eg kennels, animal shelters, pets etc.
  • Vaccination protocol, timing, boosters, age, route of administration (intranasal, SC, etc).
  • Known adverse reactions with vaccination.

Note:

  • All puppies should receive core vaccines against the major infectious diseases - canine distemper Canine distemper disease, canine adenovirus (infectious canine hepatitis virus) Canine adenovirus type 1 disease , canine parvovirus 2 Parvovirus disease associated with CPV-2 , beginning not less than 6 weeks of age.
    All puppies should be vaccinated with core vaccines at intervals of 2-4 weeks* until 16 weeks of age or older to avoid vaccine interference from Maternally Derived Antibody.
  • In the UK, vaccination against rabies Rabies disease is only carried out for dogs traveling under the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) Pet Travel Scheme.

*While most manufacturers recommend an interval of 3 to 4 weeks (based on licensing studies), immunologists often emphasize a minimum of 2 weeks.

Vaccines by indication

See Canine vaccination - initial series table Canine vaccination table.

Canine distemper virus

  • The canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine is produced from virus grown in cultured cell lines. All CDV vaccines contain either attenuated (modified-live) virus or are recombinant (virus vectored; available in the USA).
  • All CDV vaccines are freeze-dried, and must be reconstituted prior to use. Distemper vaccines should be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded.
  • CDV vaccine is generally mixed with CAV and CPV antigens and dispensed in single dose vials which are reconstituted with sterile water, pH balanced saline or a killed bacterial vaccines, eg leptospirosis vaccine Leptospirosis.
  • The vaccine is indicated for all dogs. All animals are potentially at risk of infection although disease is most severe in young dogs.

Protocol

  • Typically administered in combination with canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, CDV vaccines are administered not earlier than 6 weeks of age. All CDV vaccines may be administered by the subcutaneous route.
  • In puppies, subsequent doses in the initial series are recommended every 2 to 4 weeks until 16 weeks of age or older.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the lst dose in the initial series. WSAVA guidelines (2016) recommend that this final dose in the puppy series be given at 26 weeks of age, rather than waiting until 52 weeks of age (or 52 weeks after the final dose in the puppy series).
  • Subsequently, adult dogs may be vaccinated with a single dose no more frequently than every 3 years. Doing so provides excellent, sustained protective immunity regardless of the product selected. Serological testing Serology may be used in lieu of automatic booster vaccination. Dogs that are seropositive for CDV are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.
  • Overdue for booster vaccination: dogs that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 3 years can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of CDV vaccines in dogs that are overdue for a booster. Such dogs may also be tested serologically and if they have antibody against CDV, they are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.

Canine parvovirus

  • The canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) Canine parvovirus vaccines is produced from virus grown in cultured cell lines. All parvovirus vaccines are attenuated (modified-live) virus. Inactivated (killed) CPV vaccines are less immunogenic than modified-live virus vaccine and, therefore, have been phased out by most manufacturers.
  • All parvovirus vaccines are freeze-dried and must be reconstituted prior to use. It is recommended that CPV vaccines be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded.
  • CPV vaccine is dispensed in single dose vials (generally in combination with CDV and CAV) which are reconstituted with sterile water, pH balanced saline or a killed bacterial vaccine, eg leptospirosis vaccine.
  • CPV vaccine is indicated for all dogs. All dogs are potentially at risk of infection although disease is most severe in young dogs.

Protocol

  • Typically administered in combination with canine distemper (CDV) and canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, CPV vaccines are administered not earlier than 6 weeks of age. All CPV vaccines may be administered by the subcutaneous route.
  • In puppies, subsequent doses in the initial series are recommended every 2 to 4 weeks until 16 weeks of age or older.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series. WSAVA guidelines (2016) recommend that this final dose in the puppy series be given at 26 weeks of age, rather than waiting until 52 weeks of age (or 52 weeks after the final dose in the puppy series).
  • Subsequently, adult dogs may be vaccinated with a single dose no more frequently than every 3 years. Doing so provides excellent, sustained protective immunity regardless of the produce selected. Serological testing may be used in lieu of automatic booster vaccination. Dogs that are seropositive for CPV are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.
  • Overdue for booster vaccination: dogs that have not received a booster inoculation within the past 3 years can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of CPV vaccines in dogs that are overdue for a booster. Such dogs may also be tested serologically and if they have antibody against CPV, they are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.

Canine adenovirus-2 (for protection against Canine adenovirus-1 (canine hepatitis virus)

  • All CAV-2 Canine adenovirus type 2 vaccines are freeze-dried and must be reconstituted prior to use. It is recommended that CAV-2 vaccines be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded.
  • CAV-2 vaccine is dispensed in single dose vials (generally in combination with CDV and CPV) which are reconstituted with sterile water or a pH balanced saline solution. CAV-2 vaccines intended for parenteral (vs intranasal; available in the USA) vaccination may also be reconstituted with a killed bacterial vaccine, eg leptospirosis vaccine, but only if recommended by the manufacturer.
  • Parenterally administered CAV-2 vaccine is indicated for protection of all dogs against CAV-1 (canine hepatitis virus) Canine adenovirus type 1 Canine adenovirus type 1 disease. Although the risk for exposure to canine hepatitis is now considered to be low in many parts of the world, all dogs are potentially at risk of infection; the disease is most severe in young dogs.
  • Live attenuated CAV-1 vaccines have been associated with immune-mediated uveitis ('blue eye') Cornea: opacity and may replicate in the kidneys resulting in interstitial nephritis and virus excretion. Although the manufacture of CAV-1 vaccines has been largely discontinued, limited product may still be available in some markets. Use of this vaccine is not recommended.
    Attenuated (modified-live) CAV-2 vaccines are also available in some countries for intranasal administration. These products are manufactured in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus vaccine as an aid to reduce the severity of the canine infectious respiratory disease complex. CAV-2 vaccine labeled for intranasal administration is not intended for the prevention of canine hepatitis virus.This product must not be administered parenterally (see below).

Protocol

  • Typically administered in combination with canine distemper (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines, CAV-2 vaccines are administered not earlier than 6 weeks of age. CAV-2 vaccines, in combination with CDV and CPV vaccine, may be administered by the subcutaneous route.
  • In puppies, subsequent doses in the initial series are recommended every 2-4 weeks until 16 weeks of age or older.
  • A booster dose is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series. WSAVA guidelines (2016) recommend that this final dose in the puppy series be given at 26 weeks of age, rather than waiting until 52 weeks of age (or 52 weeks after the final dose in the puppy series).
  • Subsequently, adult dogs may be vaccinated with single dose no more frequently than every 3 years. Doing so provides excellent, sustained protective immunity regardless of the product selected. Serological testing may be used in lieu of automatic booster vaccination. Dogs that are seropositive for CAV are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.
  • Overdue for booster vaccination: dogs that have not received a booster vaccine within the past 3 years can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of CAV-2 vaccines in dogs that are overdue for a booster. Such dogs may also be tested serologically and if they have antibody against CAV, they are protected and do not require booster vaccination at that time.

Leptospirosis

  • All canine leptospirosis vaccines available today contain inactivated (killed) bacteria and are dispensed in single dose vials containing a liquid suspension. Canine vaccines are available as either a bivalent (eg L. canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagiae Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae Leptospirosis ) or quadravalent ( L. canicolaL. icterohaemorrhagiae), L. grippotyphosa, plus L. pomona in the USA, or L. bratislava/australis in Europe) products for parenteral administration only. The specific serogroups included in multivalent vaccines do differ in different parts of the world so the vaccines have been formulated to address local prevalence of the organisms.
  • Generally, protection against leptospirosis is serovar-specific. Cross protection among serovars is limited.
  • Dogs are susceptible to infection by numerous different serovars; however, vaccines against all of these serovars are not currently provided in commercially available vaccines. Well vaccinated dogs, therefore, can still develop leptospirosis.
  • Many leptospirosis vaccines are licensed for use as a diluent for reconstituting freeze-dried attenuated core vaccine, ie CDV-CPV-CAV combination). Recently, quadravalent vaccines have become available that are not licensed for use as a diluent and must be administered separately. Refer to the manufacturer's label instructions when administering a Leptospira vaccine.
  • The vaccine is non-core for dogs. Dogs of all ages are equally susceptible to infection if exposed. The decision to administer a Leptospira vaccine should be based on life-style factors and risk for exposure.

Protocol

  • Two initial doses, 2 to 4 weeks apart, starting at 8 weeks of age, are required to immunize a dog against leptospirosis. If the interval between the initial 2 doses exceeds 6 weeks, it is reasonable to recommend re-starting the 2-dose series.
  • Following the initial 2-dose series, dogs should be re-vaccinated annually as long as the risk for exposure exists.
  • A limited number of challenge studies designed to assess efficacy of leptospirosis vaccines support a one-year duration of immunity.
  • Overdue for vaccination: because immunological "memory" associated with bacterial vaccines is generally shorter than that associated with viral vaccines, dogs that are overdue for re-vaccination should receive 2 doses of vaccine, 3 to 4 weeks apart, then annually thereafter as long as risk for exposure is sustained.
  • Although earlier leptospirosis vaccines were reported to protect dogs from developing clinical signs if infected, many vaccines did not prevent against infection, renal colonization, or shedding of infectious spirochetes in urine, thereby leading to the development of an asymptomatic carrier-state. Today, some of the newer (4-serovar) vaccines have been labeled for their ability to prevent both infection and shedding. Consult the manufacturer's data sheet (package insert) for specific data.

Lyme disease (Borreliosis)

  • Lyme disease, also called Lyme borreliosis Borreliosis , is the most prevalent vector-borne infectious disease in dogs and humans. Infection in dogs results following Ixodes tick-borne transmission of spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Clinical illness does not necessarily correspond with infection. In contrast to humans (approximately 80% of humans develop clinical signs following infection), clinical illness typically manifests rarely in dogs following infection. Healthy dogs with a "positive" Lyme disease serological test result are therefore common.That is to say, exposure is more common than clinical disease.
  • Canine vaccines for prevention of Lyme disease are most commonly administered in North America, the UK, and Europe where the risk of infection is relatively high.
  • Canine Lyme disease vaccines vary according to country of manufacture and distribution. In North America, dogs may be vaccinated against infection with Borrelia burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi using a whole-cell (killed) bacterin, a bi-valent whole-cell (killed) bacterin, or a recombinant (plasmid expressed) vaccine.
  • In Europe and the UK, due to geographical variances in infecting strains, dogs may be vaccinated against infection with a whole-cell (killed) bacterin containing as many as three strains of bacteria: B. burgorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii.
  • Immunity from natural infection is minimal to non-existent. Immunity following vaccination is limited, therefore annual revaccination is highly recommended where exposure risk is sustained.
  • The pathogenesis of canine Lyme disease is complex. Vaccination, although indicated where infection risk occurs, is not expected to immunize all vaccinates. Prevention of infection among dogs at risk for exposure must include the use of vector control (ie ectoparasite preventatives) that are regularly and properly administered.
  • Use of a Lyme vaccine in dogs is non-core. Dogs of all ages are equally susceptible to infection if exposed. The decision to administer a Lyme disease vaccine should be based on life-style factors and risk for exposure.

Protocol

  • Lyme disease vaccine may be administered to dogs as young as 8 weeks of age.
  • Two initial doses, 2 to 4 weeks apart, are required to immunize a dog against Borrelia infection. If the interval between the initial 2 doses exceeds 6 weeks, it is reasonable to recommend re-starting the 2-dose series.
    Following the initial 2-dose series, manufacturers recommend re-vaccination annually as long as the risk for exposure exists. 
  • Where feasible, annual re-vaccination should be timed to within approximately 1 month of season when tick activity is greatest (eg in the Spring).
  • Overdue for vaccination: immunological "memory" following immunization against Lyme disease is considered to be limited. Dogs that are overdue for re-vaccination should receive an initial 2-dose series, 2 to 4 weeks apart, then annually thereafter as long as risk for exposure is sustained.

Canine parainfluenza virus 2 

  • Canine parainfluenza virus Canine parainfluenza virus 2 (CPiV) represents one of the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC; also known as 'kennel cough') Acute infectious tracheobronchitis.
  • CPiV vaccine is dispensed in single dose vials which are reconstituted with sterile water, pH balanced saline, or a killed bacterial vaccine, eg leptospirosis vaccine.
  • It is recommended that CPiV vaccines be administered within 1 hour following reconstitution or the dose should be discarded.
  • The vaccine is non-core. All dog are potentially at risk of infection regardless of age.

Protocol

  • Although CPiV vaccination is considered to be non-core for dogs, the vaccine is commonly combined and administered in combination with CDV-CPV-CAV vaccines throughout the world.
  • In addition, in some countries, mucosal vaccines containing attenuated (modified-live) CPiV can be administered by the intranasal route in combination with Bordetella bronchispetica. Only CPiV vaccines licensed for intranasal administration should be administered by this route.
  • CPiV vaccine is typically administed not earlier than 6 weeks of age regardless of the route of administration.
  • In puppies, the initial series of parenterally administered vaccines are recommended every 2 to 4 weeks until 16 weeks of age or older.
  • A booster dose of the parenteral vaccine is recommended within 1 year following administration of the last dose in the initial series.
  • Subsequently, adult dogs may be vaccinated with a single dose every year. 
  • The intranasal CPiV vaccine should also be administered annually.
  • Overdue to booster vaccination: dogs that have not received an annual booster inoculation can be effectively boosted following administration of a single dose of CPiV whether that dose is administered parenterally or intranasally. It is not necessary to re-initiate a series of CPiV vaccines in dogs that are overdue for a booster.

Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica

  • Bordetella vaccines are available as:
    • 1) as a monovalent, inactivated (killed) cellular extract for parenteral administration;
    • 2) as a monovalent, avirulent live bacterial vaccine for oral administration (in the USA);
    • 3) as a monovalent, avirulent live bacterial vaccine for intranasal administration;
    • 4) as multivalent, avirulent live bacterial vaccine combined with CPiV for intranasal administration; and
    • 5) as a multivalent, avirulent live bacterial vaccine combined with both CPiV and CAV-2 for intranasal administration (in the USA). All animals are potentially at risk of infection although disease is most severe in young, old and immunocompromised individuals.
       Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine must be administered by the route indicated in the manufacturer's package insert (data sheet).
  • All vaccines are dispensed as single dose vials. Avirulent live bacterial vaccines must be reconstituted prior to administration and should be used within 1 hour following reconstitution.
  • All animals are potentially at risk of infection. The disease appears to be most severe in young, stressed, or immune compromised animals.
  •  Bordetella bronchisepica vaccines are indicated in any dog with risk for exposure to other dogs, especially in kennel- and shelter-housed dogs.

Protocol-inactivated (killed) antigen-cell extract vaccine (parenteral)

  •  Bordetella bronchisepica vaccines must be administered in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
  • The inactivated, antigen-cell extract vaccine is administered as a 1.0 ml dose for parenteral (subcutaneous) inoculation only. Topical administration of this product will not immunize.
  • The vaccine is indicated as an aid in the control of canine respiratory disease caused by B. bronchiseptica.
  • Two doses of the inactivated vaccine, at not earlier than 8 weeks of age, should be administered 3 to 4 weeks apart. Dogs receiving a single initial dose are not expected to derive protective immunity.
  • Annual re-vaccination is indicated in dogs where risk for exposure is sustained.
  • Overdue for revaccination: although there are no published studies documenting the re-vaccination protocol for dogs that are overdue for B. bronchiseptica vaccination, it is reasonable to give as 2 doses, 3 to 4 weeks apart, in dogs not vaccinated as above.

Protocol-avirulent live bacterial vaccine (intranasal or oral)

  • Avirulent, live bacterial vaccines are available for administration by the intranasal and oral (USA) route.
  • Vaccines indicated for intranasal and oral administration must not be administered parenterally.
  • Intranasal vaccine may be administered into one or both nostrils. The oral vaccine should be administered into the buccal pouch. Do not administer the oral vaccine in or with food.
  • Oral and intranasal vaccine may be administered to puppies as young as 3 or 4 weeks of age.
  • A single, initial dose is sufficient to immunize.
  • The duration of immunity of intranasal B. bronchiseptica vaccine has been determined to be 12 to 14 months. Annual revaccination is recommended in dogs with sustained risk for exposure.
  • The duration of immunity of the oral B. bronchiseptica vaccine has not been established at this time. The manufacturer recommends annual revaccination among dogs with sustained risk for exposure.
  • Avirulent, live bacterial vaccines (intranasal and oral) should not be administered to dogs concurrently receiving antibiotic therapy. Doing so may render the vaccine antigen inactive.
  • Overdue for vaccination: a single dose administered in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations is sufficient to immunize regardless of the time elapsed since the previous vaccination.

Canine influenza virus

  • Canine influenza virus Canine influenza virus (CIV) represents one of the newest emergent pathogens in the spectrum of viruses associated with the canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRD).
  • A type A influenza virus, CIV is an H3N8 influenza (RNA) virus of horses that genetically adapted to dogs with, interestingly, only minor genetic variation in the HA protein. More recently, H3N2 emerged from Korea and caused outbreaks of infection in the USA.
  • First identified in a kennel of racing greyhounds in Florida in 2004, sporadic infections have now been confirmed in dogs in virtually all States. Historically, infections within the US have particularly occured among co-housed dogs living in shelter or kennel environments.
  • Occasional cases have been confirmed outside the US.
  • Infection with CIV is short-lived. Within 2 weeks following initial infection, virus is eliminated. Infection is associated with aerosol transmission. Morbidity is relatively high among exposed dogs; from 10 to 20% of infected dogs do not manifest clinical signs. Mortality is low and may be linked to co-infection with pathogenic bacteria (eg Streptococcus equisubsp. zooepidemicus Streptococcus equi) or other agents of the CIRDC.
  • Availability of vaccine is currently limited to endemic countries. All commercial vaccines are inactivated, adjuvanted (killed) virus vaccines that must be administered parenterally. There are no intranasal CIV vaccines.
  • CIV vaccines are considered non-core and are not recommended for use in all dogs.
  • While risk may be greatest among shelter-housed dogs, routine vaccination is not necessarily warranted in shelters because two initial doses, a minimum of 2 weeks apart, are required to immunize. Many shelters simply do not maintain dogs long enough to benefit from immunization, even if the first dose of vaccine is administered on entry.
  • Although CIV has been recovered from both dogs and cats, there is no evidence to support transmission of CIV from animals to humans.

Protocol

  • If indicated, 2 doses of vaccine, 3 to 4 weeks apart, should be administered parenterally at not earlier than 6 weeks of age. Annual re-vaccination is indicated where the risk of exposure is sustained.
  • Vaccination is indicated in kennel-housed dogs, particularly where several dogs are housed in close contact and in dogs housed in shelters on a long-term basis (eg "no-kill" shelters).
  • Vaccination does not prevent infection. Following exposure, vaccinated dogs are expected to manifest less severe disease and may shed virus for a shorter duration compared to non-vaccinated dogs.
  • Overdue for booster vaccination: dogs that have not received a booster inoculation can be effectively boosted following administration of  two doses of CIV vaccine 2-4 weeks apart, then annually thereafter where the risk of exposure is sustained.

Rabies Rabies disease (Lyssavirus)

  • Rabies vaccine is produced from inactivated, freeze-dried lyssavirus virus Lyssavirus (rabies) grown on a cell line and formulated with an aluminum adjuvant and dispensed in single dose, 1 ml vials.
  • Commerically available rabies vaccines are inactivated (killed) products. Rabies vaccine may be sold as a 1-year or a 3-year product depending on the country of manufacture. Attenuated (modified-live virus) rabies vaccines are no longer available for routine immunization of dogs/cats.
  • Vaccination requirements vary widely throughout the world. Veterinarians are responsible for understanding and following applicable requirements/laws. The owner is responsible for complying with rabies vaccination requirements/laws.
  • The vaccine is administered to dogs resident or visiting a country where the disease is endemic, and is a requirement for movement of dogs within Europe Pet Travel Scheme.

Protocol
Where rabies immunization is required for dogs, State, National, Provincial, or Local laws may dictate the earliest age rabies vaccine is to be administered. In most locations, rabies vaccine should not be administered to any dog less than 12 weeks of age.

  • A single dose of rabies vaccine administered as early as 12 weeks of age is considered to provide protective immunity by 28 to 30 days following the initial dose.
  • Protective antibody levels are reached after 30 days and blood samples to measure antibody levels can be taken at 30 days post-vaccination (refer to manufacturer's data sheets for optimum timing of a blood test).
  • It should be noted that in the US and Canada, a rabies antibody titer is not considered a legal index of immunity.
  • Dogs older than 12 weeks only require a single dose.
  • Following administration of the first dose of rabies vaccine to a dog, a second dose should be administered within 1 year, regardless of the dog's age at the time the initial dose is administered.
  • Requirements dictating the intervals, and the type of vaccine used, for rabies re-vaccination is stipulated by the individual country. Rabies vaccination can be given at the same time as routine vaccine protocols, but vaccines must not be mixed in the same syringe.

Canine herpes virus Canine herpesvirus disease

Vaccine only available in Europe and UK.

  • The canine herpesvirus Canine herpesvirus (CHV) vaccine is and inactivated, sub-unit vaccine containing immunogenic glycoproteins of the canine herpesvirus F205 strain.
  • The vaccine is available as a 1.0 mL dose administered subcutaneously.
  • The vaccine is indicated for administration to pregnant bitches as an aid in preventing mortality, clinical signs, and lesions in puppies resulting from canine herpesvirus infection in new-born puppies exposed in the first few days of life.
  • The vaccine may be administered to pregnant bitches known to be previously exposed to CHV.
  • The injection of the vaccine may cause a transient edema at the site of injection in up to 10% of animals. These reactions usually regress within one week. As with any vaccine a hypersensitivity reaction may occur. These are rare and appropriate symptomatic treatment should be administered.
  • The vaccine will not interfere with diagnostic testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR Polymerase chain reaction) or virus isolation.

Protocol

  • Two 1 ml doses of the vaccine are given to the bitch, the first dose at or soon after mating and the second dose six to seven weeks later, ie mid - late pregnancy. This stimulates the bitch to produce high levels of protective antibody to CHV, which she then passes to the puppies in colostrum.
  • No information is available on the efficacy from the concurrent use of this vaccine with any other product. It is therefore recommended that no other vaccines should be administered 14 days before or after vaccination with the product. Other vaccines are not generally licensed for administration during pregnancy.
    This product contains mineral oil. Inadvertent injection of vaccine into a human may result in severe pain and swelling particularly if injected into a joint or finger. In rare cases, doing so could result in the loss of the affected finger if prompt medical attention is not given. If you are accidentally injected with this product seek prompt medical advice even if only a very small amount is injected. In the event of human inoculation, the manufacturer's data sheet should accompany the patient when examined by a physician.

Canine enteric Coronavirus

  • There is no significant evidence that this agent produces clinically significant disease nor that the vaccine provides any real level of immunity. This vaccine is increasingly lacking in support for its use. The AAHA, AVMA and WSAVA guidelines discourage the use of this vaccine.

Giardia

  • Vaccination of dogs against giardiasis Giardiasis is generally not recommended. The vaccine has not been proven to prevent infection, but only reduce shedding.
  • The vaccine has been withdrawn from all markets except those in Southern and Latin America.