Contributors: Stephen Barr
Species: Canine | Classification: Techniques
Introduction Requirements Preparation Procedure Aftercare Outcomes Further Reading
- Collection of fresh urine sample allows urinalysis to be performed.
- Collection of urine sample for:
- Glucose measurement when diagnosing or monitoring diabetic patients Diabetes mellitus.
- Gross examination of urine for discoloration Discolored urine , eg hematuria, bilirubinuria, myoglobinuria (but gives no indication of source of discolouration ie renal, cystic or lower urogenital tract).
- Measurement of specific gravity Urinalysis: specific gravity in assessing renal function.
- Biochemical urinalysis (usually in assessment of renal function).
- Sediment examination for presence of casts in diagnosis of renal tubular disease.
- Sediment examination for presence of crystals in diagnosis of urolithiasis Urolithiasis.
- Requires no specialized equipment - can be performed by owner at home.
- Usually provides adequate sample for analysis.
- Contamination may make bacterial culture unreliable.
- Requires animal to urinate voluntarily (may result in delay in urine collection).
- Cannot discriminate between urine produced in upper urinary tract and contamination of sample in lower urogenital tract.
- Not appropriate if animal has urinary tract obstruction.
- Urinary catheterization in female Urethral catheterization: female or male Urethral catheterization: male.
- Cystocentesis Cystocentesis.
- None required.
- As long as it takes for the animal to urinate voluntarily.
Criteria for choosing test
- The reason for urine sample collection has an influence on the most appropriate method of collection.
- Samples for bacterial culture should be collected in a sterile manner preferably by cystocentesis.
- Requirement for regular urinalysis, eg urine glucose monitoring in diabetics necessitates owner involvement and freeflow samples are adequate.
- Clean container for collecting urine.
- Urine collection vessel should be sterile and may contain preservative (depending on sample analysis required).
- Collecting urine samples in females (which squat to urinate) may be difficult - flat urine collection trays may be useful.
Step 1 - Urine collection
- When the animal begins to urinate pass the urine collection vessel into the flow of urine.
- Experienced personnel may encourage the flow of urine by gentle pressure on the abdomen.
Step 2 - Alternative method
- Urine collection can be made from a sample passed onto a clean non-absorbant surface by means of a syringe.
Samples collected in this way are not suitable for culture due to risk of unknown contamination.
Step 1 - Urine storage
- Sealed containers should be refrigerated until examination.
- If samples are to be stored or there is delay in transport to the laboratory the sample can be transferred to a container with formalin or thymol preservative.
- Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.