Contributors: Rob Lofstedt

 Species: Feline   |   Classification: Diseases

Introduction Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Outcomes Further Reading


  • Very rare condition in the cat.
  • Cause: neoplasia, hyperplasia, cysts and/or infection have been reported.
  • Signs: lower urinary tract disease, dysuria.
  • Diagnosis: contrast radiography, post mortem.

Presenting Signs

  • Tenesmus and dysuria.
  • Penile or preputial bleeding.
  • Hematuria Hematuria may be noted.
  • Constipation Constipation.

Acute Presentation

  • Anorexia.
  • Pyrexia
  • Malaise.
  • Vomiting.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Arching of back.



  • Infectious - ascending infection via urethra.
  • Glandular hyperplasia - ? senile change.
  • Neoplasia - adenocarcinoma.


  • Variable.


Presenting Problems

  • Penile or preputial bleeding and/or hematuria.
  • Dysuria.
  • Tenesmus.

Client History

  • Difficulty in urinating.
  • Constipation and/or ribbon-like feces.
  • Hematuria.
  • Arching of back.

Clinical Signs

  • Bladder may be distended if urethra obstructed or in spasm.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Occasionally mass may be palpated on rectal examination.

Diagnostic Investigation


  • Thoracic radiographs Radiography: thorax for detection of pulmonary metastases  Lung: classic cannonball metastases - radiograph lateral if prostatic neoplasia suspected.
  • Rarely will prostatic enlargement be visible on plain films.

Contrast radiography

  • Retrograde positive contrast urethrography shows irregular narrowed urethra.

2D Ultrasonography

  • Mass around urethra at bladder neck may be identified.




  • Neoplastic epithelial cells may be seen in samples taken via transurethral catheter biopsy in cases of pancreatic neoplasia.

Gross Autopsy Findings

  • Regional lymph node enlargement (metastases from neoplasia or reactive change).
  • Distant metastases from neoplasia, eg pulmonary.

Histopathology Findings

  • Neoplastic or hyperplastic changes can be differentiated histologically.
  • Inflammatory cell infiltration in inflammatory disease
    May be secondary to underlying neoplastic cause.

Differential Diagnosis


Initial Symptomatic Treatment

  • In most cases of neoplasia no treatment is available.
  • Prostatitis: treated with broad-spectrum antibiotic (most urinary tract infections are associated with one or more of the following - Escherichia coli  Escherichia coliProteus mirabilis Proteus sppKlebsiella pneumoniaePseudomonas aeruginosa  Pseudomonas sp , Staphylococcus spp   Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp Streptococcus spp).
  • No specific chemotherapy for prostatic neoplasia, but one case report of chemotherapy Chemotherapy; general principles being given after resection of a prostatic mass.
  • Prostatic abscesses may require surgical drainage.


  • Resolution of hematuria
  • Decrease in prostate size.

Subsequent Management


  • Monitor urinalysis for continued lower urinary tract disease.
  • Check prostate size and repeat retrograde radiography if required.



  • Poor prognosis for neoplasia (usually highly malignant).
  • Too few other cases to predict prognosis.

Expected Response to Treatment

  • Resolution of signs.

Reasons for Treatment Failure

Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Caney S M, Holt P E, Day M J et al (1998) Prostatic carcinoma in two cats. JSAP 39 (3), 140-143 PubMed.
  • Newell S M, Mahaffey M B, Binhazim A et al (1992) Paraprostatic cyst in a cat. JSAP 33 (8), 399-401 VetMedResource.
  • Hubbard B S, Vulgamott J C & Liska W D (1990) Prostatic adenocarcinoma in a cat. JAVMA 197 (11), 1493-1494 PubMed.

Other Sources of Information