Contributors: Rob Lofstedt
Species: Feline | Classification: Diseases
Introduction Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Outcomes Further Reading
- Very rare condition in the cat.
- Cause: neoplasia, hyperplasia, cysts and/or infection have been reported.
- Signs: lower urinary tract disease, dysuria.
- Diagnosis: contrast radiography, post mortem.
- Tenesmus and dysuria.
- Penile or preputial bleeding.
- Hematuria Hematuria may be noted.
- Constipation Constipation.
- Abdominal pain.
- Arching of back.
- Infectious - ascending infection via urethra.
- Glandular hyperplasia - ? senile change.
- Neoplasia - adenocarcinoma.
- Penile or preputial bleeding and/or hematuria.
- Difficulty in urinating.
- Constipation and/or ribbon-like feces.
- Arching of back.
- Bladder may be distended if urethra obstructed or in spasm.
- Abdominal pain.
- Occasionally mass may be palpated on rectal examination.
- Thoracic radiographs Radiography: thorax for detection of pulmonary metastases if prostatic neoplasia suspected.
- Rarely will prostatic enlargement be visible on plain films.
- Retrograde positive contrast urethrography shows irregular narrowed urethra.
- Mass around urethra at bladder neck may be identified.
- Sediment examination for presence of active sediment Urinalysis: red blood cells, inflammatory cells Urinalysis: white blood cells, bacteria Urinalysis: culture and sensitivity in presence of infection.
- Neoplastic epithelial cells may be seen in samples taken via transurethral catheter biopsy in cases of pancreatic neoplasia.
Gross Autopsy Findings
- Regional lymph node enlargement (metastases from neoplasia or reactive change).
- Distant metastases from neoplasia, eg pulmonary.
- Neoplastic or hyperplastic changes can be differentiated histologically.
- Inflammatory cell infiltration in inflammatory disease
May be secondary to underlying neoplastic cause.
- Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD).
- Cystitis Cystitis: bacterial.
- Trauma to preputial region, eg bite.
- Other abdominal or intestinal tumors Large intestine: neoplasia.
- Kidney disease Kidney: chronic kidney disease.
- Coagulopathy, eg warfarin toxicity Hemostatic disorders: acquired.
- Ectopic ureter Ureter: ectopic.
Initial Symptomatic Treatment
- In most cases of neoplasia no treatment is available.
- Prostatitis: treated with broad-spectrum antibiotic (most urinary tract infections are associated with one or more of the following - Escherichia coli Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Proteus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas sp , Staphylococcus spp Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp Streptococcus spp).
- No specific chemotherapy for prostatic neoplasia, but one case report of chemotherapy Chemotherapy; general principles being given after resection of a prostatic mass.
- Prostatic abscesses may require surgical drainage.
- Resolution of hematuria
- Decrease in prostate size.
- Monitor urinalysis for continued lower urinary tract disease.
- Check prostate size and repeat retrograde radiography if required.
- Poor prognosis for neoplasia (usually highly malignant).
- Too few other cases to predict prognosis.
Expected Response to Treatment
- Resolution of signs.
Reasons for Treatment Failure
- Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
- Caney S M, Holt P E, Day M J et al (1998) Prostatic carcinoma in two cats. JSAP 39 (3), 140-143 PubMed.
- Newell S M, Mahaffey M B, Binhazim A et al (1992) Paraprostatic cyst in a cat. JSAP 33 (8), 399-401 VetMedResource.
- Hubbard B S, Vulgamott J C & Liska W D (1990) Prostatic adenocarcinoma in a cat. JAVMA 197 (11), 1493-1494 PubMed.