Contributors: Ed Hall, Joseph Harari

 Species: Feline   |   Classification: Techniques

Introduction Requirements Preparation Procedure Aftercare Outcomes Further Reading

Introduction

  • Access to abdominal cavity (infrequently in the USA).

Uses

  • Treatment of various lesions, eg kidney stones Urolithiasis, gastric FBs.
  • Investigation if other options unavailable or inconclusive.
  • Gastrotomy tube placement Gastrostomy: percutaneous tube (endoscopic).
  • Gastric decompression.
  • Ovariohysterectomy - unless possible coat color change at site may be unacceptable to owner, or large exposure indicated Ovariohysterectomy.
  • Adrenal surgery (primarily in the USA).
  • Kidney biopsy.

Advantages

  • Muscle splitting approach may reduce risk of dehiscence if tissue healing poor.
  • Good unilateral access to organs placed dorsally in the abdomen.

Disadvantages

  • Limited access to restricted areas.
  • Hair regrowth at site may be darker in color - this may be unacceptable to some owners, eg in show animals - ventral midline approach may be a suitable alternative.

Alternative Techniques

Decision Taking

Criteria for choosing test

  • Midline laparotomy is usually preferred technique since it allows a full assessment of abdominal organs.

Requirements

Materials Required

Minimum equipment

Ideal equipment

  • Self-restraining retractor (Balfour or Gossett Surgical instruments: self-retaining retractors - Balfour abdominal ).

Preparation

Dietary Preparation

  • Fast patient for 12 hours before to avoid reflux esophagitis Esophagitis.

Restraint

Procedure

Approach

Step 1 - Position patient

  • Lateral recumbency, (left or right according to access required).

Step 2 - Incise skin

  • Vertical skin incision extending dorsally or ventrally according to exposure required.

Step 3 - Blunt dissection of muscles

  • Open each muscle layer by blunt dissection in direction of fibers.

Core Procedure

 
  • Further surgery depends on core procedure.

Exit

Step 1 - Close muscle layers

  • Close muscle in layers using monofilament nylon, polypropylene, polygalactin, polydioxanone or chromic catgut using a simple continuous pattern.
    Suturing peritoneum may increase risk of adhesions.

Step 2 - Close skin

  • Routine skin closure.

Aftercare

Immediate

Analgesia

Outcomes

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers